What Is Psychosocial Development?
Stages Of Development
As babies grow and develop, they face a series of demands that once mastered allows them to move on to the next life challenge. Theorists in psychology use the term, ”stages” to illustrate the different aspects and common characteristics for the challenges and demands we confront during our growth and development. If you’re reading an article in Parents magazine you might see the terms, “developmental theory “or “classical theory” when the author discusses either a stage of cognition, personality or ethics. But no matter the domain all stage theories assume that there are universal stages of development we pass through from infancy to adulthood. And, the ordering of the stages is fixed, meaning they can’t be skipped or reordered.
I want all first-time parents to underline or highlight the next few sentences.
Please, don’t stress out if you read an article stating, “at five months old babies understand “object-permanence”, meaning that an object still exists even if your infant can’t see it. And suddenly you realize that your six-month-old still cries when you hide your face playing peek-a-boo. Just because your child hasn’t mastered object permanence at five months doesn’t mean he or she isn’t developing normally. Children progress from one stage to another gradually, and may exhibit behaviors from other stages at the same time; developmental stages aren’t an all or nothing process.
Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory
Erik Erikson first published his eight stage theory of human development in his 1950 book Childhood and Society. The chapter featuring the model was titled ‘The Eight Ages of Man’. The word ‘psychosocial’ is Erikson’s term. It’s derived from the two source words, psychological (or the root, ‘psycho’ relating to the mind, brain, personality etc) and social (external relationships and environment), both at the heart of Erikson’s theory. Both he and his wife Joan, who collaborated as psychoanalysts and writers, were passionately interested in childhood development, and its effects on adult society. HIs work is as relevant today as when he first outlined his original theory, in fact given the modern pressures on society, family and relationships – and the quest for personal development and fulfillment – his ideas are probably more relevant now than ever. See more…
Erik Erikson’s psychosocial theory contends that there are eight specific stages in our life in which a specific issue is predominant and significantly affects our development and personality. He refers to these specific time periods as, “psychosocial crisis stages”. Each stage in Erikson’s theory consists of two opposing forces such as , “Integrity versus Despair”. As with all of Erikson’ stages, “Integrity versus Despair” occurs at a pivotal point during your adult life, after 65 years old; a time in your life when your growth potential is high but you’re vulnerable. We navigate through the stages by negotiating and finding a balance between the two opposing attributes, of “Integrity” and “Despair”. Attaining a balanced outcome in any of eight stages results in acquiring character strengths, which Erikson refers to as, “basic virtues”. Basic virtues are the characteristic strength of, Hope, Independence, Purpose, Competence, Sense of Self, Love, Care, and Wisdom.
Acquiring the basic virtues creates resilience and prepares you to face the next crisis. If a critical stage is left unresolved, it can affect your ability to function, cope, and negatively impact your sense of self. But, an imbalance in one stage doesn’t condemn anyone to complete failure in the next stage, although developmental progress can be slowed or made more difficult to achieve.
Developing Your Newborns Sense Of Trust
The first stage centers on the infant’s basic needs being met by the parents. According to Erikson, “Trust vs. Mistrust” is the most important stage in a person’s life. Babies depend on their parents, especially mothers, for food, sustenance, and comfort. The degree of trust that your baby develops is dependent on the sort of care you provide. It is the quality of your relationship with your baby that’s essential to developing his or her trust and inner self-esteem. How your child understands the world and society stem from their interaction with you. If you expose your newborn to warmth, regularity, and dependable affection, their view of the world will be one of trust. The major developmental task in infancy is for babies to reach out to their social environment for nurturance with the expectation you’ll satisfy their needs.
If you’re a consistent source of nurturance, comfort, and affection, your infant learns trust- that others are dependable and reliable. If you’re neglectful, or perhaps even abusive, the infant instead learns mistrust- that the world is in an undependable, unpredictable, and possibly dangerous place.
Parenting: Your Newborns Psychosocial Needs
Remember to cuddle, play and talk to your newborn. Furthermore, for your child to develop a sense of trust, and view the world as safe and reliable you must meet your baby’s physical and psychological needs and quickly relief their discomforts. Have confidence in your parenting skills. Your self-confidence helps your newborn establish feelings of trust and security for themselves and others. Children who received inconsistent and unreliable care from their parents develop fears that no one will meet their needs. They view the world with a sense of doom and withdraw from interpersonal contact. Be reliable and consistent with the love and care of you new baby and they’ll develop trust, optimism, confidence and security.